Do you have an idea to DIY or buy an affordable 5 axis CNC router kit for 2D/3D machining? Review the 2021 new 5 axis CNC machine buyer's guide for CNC machinists, operators and beginners, we'll offer you the best 5 axis CNC routers of 2021 with custom 5 axis CNC machining service to fit your 2D/3D machining projects, ideas or plans.
5 axis CNC router machine is a type of multi axis 3D machining center with CNC (Computer Numerical Control), which is different from 3D printer, it is somewhat like the 3 axis and 4 axis CNC machine, but five axis CNC machine has two additional axis they can move along. These additional axis will allow for shorter project time due to their capability of cutting five edges of the material simultaneously. However, due to the fact that these five axis machines have a longer X-axis, which makes for less stability and accuracy-potentially requiring more of your attention than a 3 axis or 4 axis CNC router. 5 axis CNC machine is also known as 5 axis CNC router, 5 axis CNC machining center, 5 axis CNC milling machine or multi axis CNC machine.
First, let's learn something about "axis":
X-axis: front to back.
Y-axis: left to right.
Z-axis: up and down.
A, B or C axis is corresponding to the rotation axis of X, Y and Z axes.
Five axis: X-Y-Z-A-B, X-Y-Z-A-C, X-Y-Z-B-C (The spindle can be rotated left and right with 180 degrees around.)
Five axis CNC machines move a part or tool on five different axis at the same time via CNC programming. 3 axis CNC machines move a part in two directions with X axis and Y axis, and the tool moves up and down with Z axis. Five axis CNC machines can rotate on two additional rotary axis (A aixs and B axis) which will help the tool to approach the part from all directions.
Five-axis linkage machining technology refers to the processing technology that a complex shape surface needs to use 5 independent axes to perform numerical control interpolation movement together to obtain a smooth and smooth surface. The number of axes for five-axis simultaneous machining refers to the number of axes that need to move independently when processing the same surface, rather than the number of controllable axes owned by the CNC. Although theoretically any complex surface can be expressed by X, Y, Z three-axis coordinates, the actual machining tool is not a point, but an entity with a certain size, in order to avoid the occurrence of tool and processing when processing the space distorted surface The interference between the surfaces and to ensure the consistency of the cutting conditions at each point on the surface require adjustment of the angle between the tool axis and the surface normal in the 2D direction. Compared with the three-axis linkage, the five-axis linkage can reduce the machining error and surface roughness to 1/3~1/6.
To truly understand five-axis machining, the first thing we need to do is to understand what a five-axis machine tool is. A five-axis machine tool, as the name suggests, refers to the addition of two rotary axis to the three common linear axis of X, Y, and Z. The two rotation axis of the three axis A, B, and C have different motion modes to meet the technical requirements of various products. In terms of the mechanical design of the 5 axis CNC machining center, machine tool manufacturers have been working tirelessly to develop new motion modes to meet various requirements. Integrating various types of five-axis machine tools currently on the market, although their mechanical structure forms are diverse, there are mainly the following forms:
The two rotation coordinates directly control the direction of the tool axis (double swing head form).
The two coordinate axes are at the tip of the tool, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the linear axis (pitch type swing head type).
Two rotation coordinates directly control the rotation of the space (dual turntable form).
The two coordinate axes are on the worktable, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the linear axis (pitch worktable).
One of the two rotation coordinates acts on the tool, and the other acts on the workpiece (one swing and one rotation).
5 axis CNC machine is designed to deliver high speed and highquality cuts for a wide range of materials, including but are not limited to wood, plastics, non ferrous metals and other composites. The CNC machine will provide various new applications including:
1. Edge trimming of thermoformed plastic, molded plastic and composite parts.
The flexibility of the CNC machine creates the ability to provide high quality finishing and edge trimming on many manufactured plastic items.
2. Deep cavity mold making.
On three-axis machines deep cavity mold making requires that you have longer tools to be able to reach deep enough. Having longer tools results in the user having to reduce cutting speed to prevent breakage. With the added movement provide by 5 axis machining, shorter tools can be used, and your cutting speed can be increased.
3. Molded plywood chairs and decorative furniture parts.
The machine allows for unique shaping and molding of various materials, allowing you to make your creative and dynamic designs a reality.
4. Detailed 3D carvings.
The increase in movement of the cutting tool on the machine allows it to carve intricate designs into a piece of material. It allows you to capture the fine details of your design in the job you are cutting.
The use of the five-axis linkage machine tool makes it easy to clamp the workpiece. No special fixtures are needed during processing, which reduces the cost of fixtures, avoids multiple clampings, and improves the accuracy of mold processing. Using five-axis technology to process molds can reduce the number of fixtures used. In addition, because the five-axis linkage machine tool can save many special tools in the processing, so the cost of the tool is reduced. The 5-axis linkage machine tool can increase the effective cutting edge length of the tool during processing, reduce the cutting force, increase the tool life and reduce the cost. Using five-axis linkage machine tool to process the mold can quickly complete the mold processing, fast delivery, better guarantee the processing quality of the mold, making mold processing easier, and making mold modification easy. In traditional mold processing, a vertical machining center is generally used to complete the milling of the workpiece. With the continuous development of mold manufacturing technology, some weaknesses of the vertical machining center itself are becoming more and more obvious. Modern mold processing generally uses ball-end milling cutters. The benefits of ball-end milling cutters in mold processing are very obvious, but if a vertical machining center is used, the linear speed of the bottom surface is zero, so the finish of the bottom surface is very poor If you use four or five-axis linkage machine tool processing technology to process the mold, you can overcome the above deficiencies.
1. Ability to work on a piece of material in one single run.
This reduces the set up time that is needed when a job takes several runs to complete. Having to only set up the job once saves you time and in turn saves your company money.
2. Provides a high level of flexibility and versatility.
Having the ability to machine on more axes can help improve production of current jobs as well as create opportunities to diversify products and offerings.
3. Shorter cutting tool size.
Due to the fact that the cutting head on the machine can be lowered towards the material being cut.
4. Increased accuracy and quality of cuts.
Having five axes increases the tool's range of movement, and as a result it is able to more accurately cut a design or job.
5. Competitive advantage.
The 5-axis machining center provides a competitive advantage for your company. Investing in the latest technology allows your company to stay ahead of the game in the ever changing and dynamic market.
Speaking of the characteristics of the five-axis machine tool, it is necessary to compare with the traditional three-axis machines. 3 axis CNC machine is relatively common in manufacturing, and there are several forms such as vertical, horizontal and gantry. Common machining methods include end milling and side cutting of end mills. The profiling of ball-end knives and so on. However, no matter which form and method have a common feature, the direction of the tool axis remains unchanged during the machining process, and the machine tool can only realize the rectangular coordinates of the tool through the interpolation of the three linear axes of X, Y, and Z Movement in the department. Therefore, in the face of the following products, the disadvantages of the low efficiency of the three-axis machine tool, the poor quality of the processed surface, and even the inability to process are exposed.
Compared with 3 axis CNC machining centers, the five-axis CNC machining centers has the following advantages:
1. Maintain the optimal cutting state of the tool and improve the cutting conditions.
In the three-axis cutting mode, when the cutting tool moves to the tip or the edge of the workpiece, the cutting state gradually deteriorates. To maintain the best cutting condition here, you need to rotate the table. And if we want to completely process an irregular plane, we must rotate the table multiple times in different directions. It can be seen that the five-axis machine tool can also avoid the situation that the linear velocity of the center point of the ball head mill is 0, and obtain better surface quality.
2. Effectively avoid tool interference.
For the impellers, blades and integral discs used in the aerospace field, the three-axis machine tool cannot meet the process requirements due to interference. The five-axis machine tool can be satisfied. At the same time, the machine tool can also use shorter tools for processing, improve the rigidity of the system, reduce the number of tools, and avoid the generation of special tools.
3. Reduce the number of clampings and complete five-sided machining in one clamping.
The five-axis machining center can also reduce reference conversion and improve machining accuracy. In actual processing, only one clamping is required, and the processing accuracy is more easily guaranteed. At the same time, due to the shortening of the process chain and the reduction of the number of equipment in the five-axis machining center, the number of tooling fixtures, the floor space of the workshop and the maintenance cost of the equipment are also reduced. This means that you can use less fixtures, less plant area and maintenance costs to complete more efficient and higher quality processing.
4. Improve processing quality and efficiency
The machine tool can be cut with the side edge of the tool, which is more efficient.
5. Shorten the production process chain and simplify production management.
The complete processing of the five-axis machine tool greatly shortens the production process chain, which can simplify production management and scheduling. The more complex the work piece, the more obvious its advantages over traditional production methods with dispersed processes.
6. Shorten the development cycle of new products.
For companies in the aerospace, automotive, and other fields, some new product parts and molding dies have complex shapes and high precision requirements. Therefore, five-axis CNC machining centers with high flexibility, high precision, high integration, and complete processing capabilities can It solves the problem of precision and cycle of complex parts processing in the development of new products, greatly shortens the development cycle and improves the success rate of new products.
In summary, the five-axis machine tool has too many advantages, but it's attitude control, CNC system, CAM programming and post-processing are much more complicated than the three-axis machine tool. At the same time, when we talk about five-axis machine tools, we have to talk about the problem of true and false five-axis. We all know that the biggest difference between true and false five-axis is the RTCP function, but what is RTCP, how is it generated and how should it be applied? Let's take a closer look at RTCP in combination with the machine tool structure and post-programming processing to understand its true face.
|Price Range||$80,000.00 - $150,000.00|
1. Basic components. It is the basic structure of the machining center, which is composed of a bed, a column, and a table. They mainly bear the static load of the machining center and the cutting load generated during machining, so they must have sufficient rigidity. These large parts can be cast iron parts or welded steel structural parts. They are the largest volume and weight parts in the machining center. AKIRA-SEIKI castings are made of high-grade Meehanite castings, which have high stability after heat treatment.
2. Spindle parts. It is composed of main shaft box, main shaft motor, main shaft and main shaft bearing. The spindle's start, stop and speed change are all controlled by the numerical control system, and participate in the cutting movement through the tool mounted on the spindle, which is the power output part of the cutting process. It is the key component of the machining center, which determines the machining accuracy and stability of the machining center.
3. Numerical control system. The numerical control part of the machining center is composed of CNC device, programmable controller PLC, servo drive device and operation panel.
4. Automatic tool change system. It is composed of tool magazine, manipulator drive mechanism and other components. When the tool needs to be changed, the CNC system issues an instruction, and the manipulator (or through other means) takes the tool out of the tool magazine and loads it into the spindle hole. It solves the task of automatic storage, selection, transportation and exchange of tools between processes in the continuous processing of multiple processes after the workpiece is clamped once. The tool magazine (cutter head) is a device that stores all the tools used in the machining process. The tool magazine has a disc chain type and the capacity ranges from a few to a few hundred. The structure of the tool arm also has various forms according to the relative position and structure of the tool magazine and the spindle, such as single-arm type, double-arm type, and so on. Some machining centers do not use the tool arm but directly use the movement of the headstock or tool magazine to change the tool.
5. Auxiliary device. Including lubrication, cooling, chip removal, protection, hydraulics, pneumatics, and detection systems. Although these devices do not directly participate in the cutting movement, they play a role in guaranteeing the machining efficiency, machining accuracy and reliability of the machining center, so they are also an indispensable part of the machining center.
6. APC automatic pallet change system. In order to realize unmanned advancement or further shorten non-processing time, some machining centers adopt multiple automatic exchange worktables to store workpieces. While one workpiece is installed on the worktable for processing, the other one or several worktables You can also load and unload other parts. When the parts on a workbench are processed, the workbenches are automatically exchanged to process new parts, which can reduce auxiliary time and improve processing efficiency.
If you have an idea to buy or DIY 5 axis CNC router kits, you may wonder how much does it cost? how to get a final price? According to different machine configurations, you will get the price range from $80,000.00 to $150,000.00. If you want to buy overseas, the fee of customs clearance, tax, and shipping costs should be included in the final price.
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