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5 Axis CNC Router Machine Basics - The Beginner's Guide

Do you have an idea to DIY or buy an affordable 5 axis CNC router kit for 2D/3D machining? Review the 2021 new 5 axis CNC machine buyer's guide for CNC machinists, operators and beginners, we'll offer you the best 5 axis CNC router machines of 2021 with custom 5 axis CNC machining service to fit your 2D/3D machining projects, ideas or plans.

Definition

5 axis CNC router machine is a type of multi axis 3D machining center with CNC (Computer Numerical Control), which is different from 3D printer, it is somewhat like the 3 axis and 4 axis CNC machine, but five axis CNC machine has two additional axis they can move along. These additional axis will allow for shorter project time due to their capability of cutting five edges of the material simultaneously. However, due to the fact that these five axis machines have a longer X-axis, which makes for less stability and accuracy-potentially requiring more of your attention than a 3 axis or 4 axis CNC router. 5 axis CNC machine is also known as 5 axis CNC router, 5 axis CNC machining center, 5 axis CNC milling machine or multi axis CNC machine.

Working Principle

First, let's learn something about "axis":

X-axis: front to back.

Y-axis: left to right.

Z-axis: up and down.

A, B or C axis is corresponding to the rotation axis of X, Y and Z axes.

Five axis: X-Y-Z-A-B, X-Y-Z-A-C, X-Y-Z-B-C (The spindle can be rotated left and right with 180 degrees around.)

Five axis CNC machines move a part or tool on five different axis at the same time via CNC programming. 3 axis CNC machines move a part in two directions with X axis and Y axis, and the tool moves up and down with Z axis. Five axis CNC machines can rotate on two additional rotary axis (A aixs and B axis) which will help the tool to approach the part from all directions.

Five-axis linkage machining technology refers to the processing technology that a complex shape surface needs to use 5 independent axes to perform numerical control interpolation movement together to obtain a smooth and smooth surface. The number of axes for five-axis simultaneous machining refers to the number of axes that need to move independently when processing the same surface, rather than the number of controllable axes owned by the CNC. Although theoretically any complex surface can be expressed by X, Y, Z three-axis coordinates, the actual machining tool is not a point, but an entity with a certain size, in order to avoid the occurrence of tool and processing when processing the space distorted surface The interference between the surfaces and to ensure the consistency of the cutting conditions at each point on the surface require adjustment of the angle between the tool axis and the surface normal in the 2D direction. Compared with the three-axis linkage, the five-axis linkage can reduce the machining error and surface roughness to 1/3~1/6.

Types

5 axis CNC machine has three types of structure and movement configuration. When these two types are combined, nine 5 axis CNC machines of different structure types are obtained. 5-axis machining centers can be divided into five-axis linkage machining center, five-axis CNC machining center, five-axis precision machining center, five-axis high-speed machining center, small five-axis machining center, high-precision five-axis machining center, five-axis CNC router machine, vertical five-axis machining center.

Applications

5 axis CNC machine is designed to deliver high speed and highquality cuts for a wide range of materials, including but are not limited to wood, plastics, non ferrous metals and other composites. The CNC machine will provide various new applications including:

1. Edge trimming of thermoformed plastic, molded plastic and composite parts.

The flexibility of the CNC machine creates the ability to provide high quality finishing and edge trimming on many manufactured plastic items.

2. Deep cavity mold making.

On three-axis machines deep cavity mold making requires that you have longer tools to be able to reach deep enough. Having longer tools results in the user having to reduce cutting speed to prevent breakage. With the added movement provide by 5 axis machining, shorter tools can be used, and your cutting speed can be increased.

3. Molded plywood chairs and decorative furniture parts.

The machine allows for unique shaping and molding of various materials, allowing you to make your creative and dynamic designs a reality.

4. Detailed 3D carvings.

The increase in movement of the cutting tool on the machine allows it to carve intricate designs into a piece of material. It allows you to capture the fine details of your design in the job you are cutting.

Features

5 axis CNC machine has the features of high efficiency and high precision, and complex machining can be completed in one clamping of the workpiece. It can be adapted to the processing of modern molds such as auto parts and aircraft structural parts. There is a big difference between a five-axis machining center and a five-sided machining center. Many people don't know this and mistake the pentahedral machining center as a five-axis machining center. The five-axis machining center has five axes X, Y, Z, A, C. X, Y, Z axis and A, C axis form a five-axis linkage processing, good at space surface processing, special-shaped processing, hollow processing, punching, oblique Holes, bevel cuts, etc. The "pentahedral machining center" is similar to a three-axis machining center, except that it can do five faces at the same time, but it cannot do special-shaped machining, beveled holes, cut bevels, etc.

Speaking of the features of the five-axis CNC machine tool, it is necessary to compare with the traditional three-axis CNC machines. 3 axis CNC machine is relatively common in manufacturing, and there are several forms such as vertical, horizontal and gantry. Common machining methods include end milling and side cutting of end mills. The profiling of ball-end knives and so on. However, no matter which form and method have a common feature, the direction of the tool axis remains unchanged during the machining process, and the machine tool can only realize the rectangular coordinates of the tool through the interpolation of the three linear axes of X, Y, and Z Movement in the department. Therefore, in the face of the following products, the disadvantages of the low efficiency of the three-axis machine tool, the poor quality of the processed surface, and even the inability to process are exposed.

Advantages

The advantage of 5 axis CNC machine is that it can process free-form surfaces that can not be processed by ordinary 3 axis CNC machines or that it cannot be processed at one time. For example, the blades of aircraft engines and steam turbines, the propellers of ships, and other complex molds with special curved surfaces. Since the tools and angles of the five-axis machining center can be adjusted at any time during the machining process, other tools can be avoided and all machining can be completed at one time.

The 5 axis CNC machinie can also achieve the machining accuracy and quality of free-form surfaces under the premise of high effects. For example, when a three-axis machine tool is used to process complex curved surfaces, a ball-end milling cutter is used. Its cutting efficiency is low, and the angle of the tool cannot be adjusted freely, so it is difficult to ensure the smoothness of the processed surface. However, with a five-axis machining center machine tool, because the angle of the tool can be adjusted freely, the above situation can be avoided, so that higher cutting efficiency and high-quality surface quality can be obtained.

When the five-axis CNC machining center is processing deeper and steeper cavities, the additional rotation and swing of the workpiece or spindle head can create the best process conditions for the processing of end mills, and avoid cutting tools, tool holders, and cavity walls. Collision occurs, reducing the jitter of the tool during machining and the risk of tool damage, thereby helping to improve the surface quality of the mold, the machining efficiency and the durability of the tool.

The five-axis CNC machining center can complete the processing of the entire part at one time by using a shorter tool. It does not need to re-install the card or use the longer tool required in the same type of 3-axis machining, and it can be delivered in a shorter time. The surface quality is also ideal.

The technology of the five-axis machining center eliminates the need to reposition the workpiece at complex angles for multiple debugging and clamping. This not only saves time, but also greatly reduces the error, and saves the expensive cost of fixtures and fixtures required to install the workpiece in place.

Compared with 3 axis CNC machining centers, 5 axis CNC machining centers has the following advantages:

1. Maintain the optimal cutting state of the tool and improve the cutting conditions.

In the three-axis cutting mode, when the cutting tool moves to the tip or the edge of the workpiece, the cutting state gradually deteriorates. To maintain the best cutting condition here, you need to rotate the table. And if we want to completely process an irregular plane, we must rotate the table multiple times in different directions. It can be seen that the five-axis machine tool can also avoid the situation that the linear velocity of the center point of the ball head mill is 0, and obtain better surface quality.

2. Effectively avoid tool interference.

For the impellers, blades and integral discs used in the aerospace field, the three-axis machine tool cannot meet the process requirements due to interference. The five-axis machine tool can be satisfied. At the same time, the machine tool can also use shorter tools for processing, improve the rigidity of the system, reduce the number of tools, and avoid the generation of special tools.

3. Reduce the number of clampings and complete five-sided machining in one clamping.

The five-axis machining center can also reduce reference conversion and improve machining accuracy. In actual processing, only one clamping is required, and the processing accuracy is more easily guaranteed. At the same time, due to the shortening of the process chain and the reduction of the number of equipment in the five-axis machining center, the number of tooling fixtures, the floor space of the workshop and the maintenance cost of the equipment are also reduced. This means that you can use less fixtures, less plant area and maintenance costs to complete more efficient and higher quality processing.

4. Improve processing quality and efficiency.

The machine tool can be cut with the side edge of the tool, which is more efficient.

5. Shorten the production process chain and simplify production management.

The complete processing of the five-axis machine tool greatly shortens the production process chain, which can simplify production management and scheduling. The more complex the work piece, the more obvious its advantages over traditional production methods with dispersed processes.

6. Shorten the development cycle of new products.

For companies in the aerospace, automotive, and other fields, some new product parts and molding dies have complex shapes and high precision requirements. Therefore, five-axis CNC machining centers with high flexibility, high precision, high integration, and complete processing capabilities can It solves the problem of precision and cycle of complex parts processing in the development of new products, greatly shortens the development cycle and improves the success rate of new products.

In addition, the five-axis CNC machining center can also enable the machine tool to process complex parts, which is impossible with other methods, including drilling, cavity recesses and taper machining usually required on complex surfaces.

In summary, the five-axis CNC machine tool has too many advantages, but it's attitude control, CNC system, CAM programming and post-processing are much more complicated than the three-axis machine tool. At the same time, when we talk about five-axis machine tools, we have to talk about the problem of true and false five-axis. We all know that the biggest difference between true and false five-axis is the RTCP function, but what is RTCP, how is it generated and how should it be applied? Let's take a closer look at RTCP in combination with the machine tool structure and post-programming processing to understand its true face.

Specifications

BrandSTYLECNC
SpindleHSD
Servo SystemYASKAVA
InverterDelta
Tool MagzineLinear/Carousel
Capability2D/2.5D/3D Machining
Control SystemSYNTEC/OSAI
Price Range$80,000.00 - $150,000.00

Components

1. Basic components. It is the basic structure of the machining center, which is composed of a bed, a column, and a table. They mainly bear the static load of the machining center and the cutting load generated during machining, so they must have sufficient rigidity. These large parts can be cast iron parts or welded steel structural parts. They are the largest volume and weight parts in the machining center. AKIRA-SEIKI castings are made of high-grade Meehanite castings, which have high stability after heat treatment.

2. Spindle parts. It is composed of main shaft box, main shaft motor, main shaft and main shaft bearing. The spindle's start, stop and speed change are all controlled by the numerical control system, and participate in the cutting movement through the tool mounted on the spindle, which is the power output part of the cutting process. It is the key component of the machining center, which determines the machining accuracy and stability of the machining center.

3. Numerical control system. The numerical control part of the machining center is composed of CNC device, programmable controller PLC, servo drive device and operation panel.

4. Automatic tool change system. It is composed of tool magazine, manipulator drive mechanism and other components. When the tool needs to be changed, the CNC system issues an instruction, and the manipulator (or through other means) takes the tool out of the tool magazine and loads it into the spindle hole. It solves the task of automatic storage, selection, transportation and exchange of tools between processes in the continuous processing of multiple processes after the workpiece is clamped once. The tool magazine (cutter head) is a device that stores all the tools used in the machining process. The tool magazine has a disc chain type and the capacity ranges from a few to a few hundred. The structure of the tool arm also has various forms according to the relative position and structure of the tool magazine and the spindle, such as single-arm type, double-arm type, and so on. Some machining centers do not use the tool arm but directly use the movement of the headstock or tool magazine to change the tool.

5. Auxiliary device. Including lubrication, cooling, chip removal, protection, hydraulics, pneumatics, and detection systems. Although these devices do not directly participate in the cutting movement, they play a role in guaranteeing the machining efficiency, machining accuracy and reliability of the machining center, so they are also an indispensable part of the machining center.

6. APC automatic pallet change system. In order to realize unmanned advancement or further shorten non-processing time, some machining centers adopt multiple automatic exchange worktables to store workpieces. While one workpiece is installed on the worktable for processing, the other one or several worktables You can also load and unload other parts. When the parts on a workbench are processed, the workbenches are automatically exchanged to process new parts, which can reduce auxiliary time and improve processing efficiency.

Pricing Guide

If you have an idea to buy or DIY 5 axis CNC router kits, you may wonder how much does it cost? how to get a final price? According to different machine configurations, you will get the price range from $80,000.00 to $150,000.00. If you want to buy overseas, the fee of customs clearance, tax, and shipping costs should be included in the final price.


Models

Minimum PriceMaximum PriceAverage Price
STM1212E-5A$80,000.00$90,000.00$85,000.00
STM1212E2-5A$90,000.00$120,000.00$105,000.00
STM1325-5A$100,000.00$110,000.00$100,500.00
STM2040-5A$100,000.00$150,000.00$12,500.00

Buying Guide

STYLECNC is a guaranteed 5 axis CNC machine manufacturer, supplier and seller. STYLECNC provides all kinds of best 5 axis CNC routers for sale to fit your 3D machining projects and plans.

STYLECNC's five axis CNC machining centers are equipped with:

Genuine CAM software and CNC control system,

The best original parts, bits, tools, and accessories.

STYLECNC offers cost price for your five axis CNC machining plans without any intermediate. You will get the best machines with affordable price from us.

STYLECNC also offers five axis CNC machining solutions, plans, and ideas, 24/7 free service and support, which is available free.

5 Axis CNC Router Machines for Sale

(5 Items)

2021 Top Rated 5 Axis CNC Router for Sale at Cost Price

STM1325-5A

$100000.00 - $110000.00

2021 top rated 5 axis CNC router is designed for 3D modeling, cutting, and mold making, including automotive foam mold, ship model, building model, metalloid moulds, 3D carving and 3D cutting of large-scale instruments. Now the best five-axis CNC router for sale at cost price within your budget.

Industrial 5 Axis CNC Router Machine for 3D Milling & 3D Carving

STM2040-5A

$110000.00 - $150000.00

Industrial 5 axis CNC router machine is designed for 3D CNC milling and 3D carving in metal and foam mold making, car body making, boat and building model, pattern making. Now the industrial five axis CNC machine for sale at cost price.

Large Gantry 5 Axis CNC Machine for 3D Machining

STM2040-5A

$100000.00 - $150000.00

Large gantry 5 axis CNC machine is heavy duty industrial CNC router machine used for trimming formed parts, aerospace, molds, patterns, composites, automotive, large envelope parts, other 3D surface milling and 3D shape cutting projects. Now the large format five axis CNC machine for sale at cost price.

Small 5 Axis CNC Machining Center for 3D Woodworking

STM1212E-5A

$80000.00 - $90000.00

Small 5 axis CNC machining center is an entry-level five-axis CNC router machine with HSD spindle, which is widely used in 3D woodworking, mold making, 3D cutting and 3D carving. Now the small five axis CNC machining center for sale at affordable price.

Mini 5 Axis CNC Milling Machine for 3D Modeling & Cutting

STM1212E2-5A

$90000.00 - $120000.00

Mini 5 axis CNC milling machine with double tables is designed for 3D cutting, 3D mold making, and 3D modeling, such as wood mold making, foam mold making, automotive models, metal mold making, building models. Now the small 5 axis CNC milling machine for sale at affordable price.

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