Last Updated on May 12, 2021 by 5 Min Read

A Practical Guide To CNC Router Spindles

CNC router spindles

What Is A CNC Router Spindle?

A CNC router spindle is an electric spindle for high-speed routing, carving, engraving, drilling, milling, punching and more machining methods. A CNC router spindle is the core part of CNC router machine, which is divided into air-cooled spindle and water-cooled spindle.

How Does A CNC Router Spindle Work?

As one of the main parts of the CNC router kit, the spindle is mainly used to adjust the speed of the machine tool. What is the working principle of the spindle of the CNC router machine? In other words, how does the CNC router spindle work?

Drive the variable speed

The spindle of the CNC router machine is the source of the speed of the entire machine tool, and the spindle drive speed change is generally embodied in two main forms.

1. The spindle motor is equipped with gear shifting. The purpose is to reduce the spindle speed and increase the transmission ratio to meet the requirements of machine cutting.

2. The spindle motor drives the spindle through a synchronous toothed belt or V-belt. This type of spindle is also called a wide range motor or a strong cutting motor, which has the characteristics of constant power and wide range.

There is no need for mechanical speed change during the working process, and gears and clutches are omitted in the spindle box. At this time, the spindle box actually becomes the spindle support, which simplifies the main transmission system, thereby improving the reliability of the transmission chain.

Improve accuracy

There are two forms of CNC router spindle: AC drive and DC drive. At present, the form of AC drive is generally adopted.

The AC motor does not require maintenance, is easy to manufacture, and is not affected by harsh environments.

In the early stage, the AC spindle used an analog AC servo system, but now the mainstream is a digital AC servo system.

The spindle utilization system control model and dynamic compensation are processed in real time by a high-speed microprocessor, which enhances the system's self-diagnostic ability, thereby improving the accuracy of the system.

Drive initiative

The spindle speed is reduced by a few pairs of gears, and the output torque is expanded to meet the requirements of the output torque characteristics of the spindle at low speeds. Generally, large and medium-sized CNC machine tools are willing to adopt this speed change method.

There is also a way to drive initiative, which is applied to machine tools with high speeds and small speed ranges. The speed regulation of the motor itself can meet the requirements, and it can also avoid the vibration and noise caused by gear transmission.

How To Choose CNC Router Spindle Motors?

1. The standard for judging whether the spindle is of high quality

1.1. Whether the spindle motor uses high-precision bearings? If high-precision bearings are not used, the performance is that the spindle motor will overheat after long-term high-speed rotation, which will affect the service life of the spindle motor.

1.2. Whether the sound is uniform and harmonious when rotating at different speeds, especially at high speeds.

1.3. Whether the spindle is under force in the radial direction. The main reference is whether it is possible to cut harder materials at high speed. Some spindles can only cut harder materials at very low speeds, otherwise the spindle performance will be severely lost, which will affect the spindle accuracy after a period of time, or even malfunction.

1.4. If you want to pursue high processing efficiency, the processing speed must be fast, and the amount of knife will be large at the same time, such as processing solid wood materials, etc., you need a spindle motor with a power of 2.2KW or more.

1.5. The standard configuration of the spindle has different configurations according to the specifications of the equipment.

2. Choose the right spindle motor according to different users.

2.1. Hobby CNC router machine: The spindle power is from 1.5KW to 3.0KW. If you choose this way, you can achieve the purpose of machining and save costs.

2.2. CNC wood router: The spindle motor can be selected according to the hardness of the wood to be processed. Its power is generally from 2.2KW to 4.5KW, this combination is also the most reasonable.

2.3. Metal CNC router machine: The spindle power used by manufacturers is relatively higher, generally from 4.5KW to 7.5KW, and the most commonly used is 5.5KW spindle motor.

2.4. Stone CNC router machine: The spindle power should also be selected according to the hardness of the processed stone. The general power of 3.0KW to 4.5KW can meet customer needs.

2.5. Small CNC router machine: The power of the spindle motor is generally from 2.2KW to 3.0KW due to its small machine bed.

Too much power of the spindle motor not only wastes electrical energy, but also increases the purchase cost. If the power is too small, the machining power demand will not be available, so it is very important to choose a suitable spindle motor power!

3. The relationship between the spindle speed of the CNC router machine and the routing materials.

The greater the hardness of the routing material, the lower the rotation speed of the spindle. This is actually well understood. Materials with high hardness need to be grinded slowly. If the rotation speed is too fast, the tool may be damaged. The higher the viscosity of the machining material, the higher the speed of the spindle used. This is mainly for some soft metals or man-made materials.

The diameter of the tool used in the CNC router table is also a very important factor in determining the spindle speed. The practical tool diameter is related to the processing material and processing line. The larger the diameter of the tool, the slower the spindle speed will be.

4. To determine the spindle speed should be based on the use of the spindle motor.

From the power curve of the spindle motor, we can see that when the spindle speed decreases, the output power of the motor also decreases. If the output power is low to a certain level, it will affect the processing, which will adversely affect the life of the tool and the workpiece. Therefore, when determining the spindle speed, pay attention to ensuring that the spindle motor has a certain output power.

How To Use And Maintain CNC Router Spindles?

According to the customer's processing technology and environment, the CNC router spindle can be configured selectively. As a result of the working environment factor, the spindle is the contact processing workpiece and the scrap biggest equipment fittings, but the spindle performance also affects the processing technology enormously. Therefore, in the day-to-day production and processing, we should do a good job of CNC router spindle maintenance.

1. It is necessary to establish the consciousness of CNC routers. For the purpose of spindle motors, the implementation of the awareness of love is the habit of getting rid of the spindle motor. If this habit has been developed, the main maintenance of the spindle motor will be done.

2. Scrap every day after work in the operator to use the vacuum cleaner to clean the motor spindle and motor rotor end terminals, to prevent the waste in the rotor end and terminal on the accumulation, in order to avoid the waste into the bearing, accelerated wear of high speed bearings, avoid the scrap into the terminal, causing motor short circuit burned.

3. Each time the card is loaded and the tool is replaced, the operator must unscrew the cap and can not change the tool with the direct insertion method.

4. The operator shall form a habit of cleaning the clamp head and the pressure cap after unloading the knife.

5. It is also a custom that the operator must clean the tool, the clamp head and the pressure cap when putting on the knife. This detail is in place, the spindle motor life can be greatly extended.

6. A day after the start of the cooling water to the operator must check the motor working condition, to check the work, to check whether the cooling water scale, microbial contamination, to check the pipeline status is normal, must ensure the normal circulation of cooling water. It is strictly prohibited to turn on the spindle motor without cooling water in the speed spindle motor. Only in the premise of normal cooling, spindle motor can be in good working condition. If the pipe has a dead bend, resulting in water flow or dirt clogging the pipe, it will cause the spindle motor can not work properly, and will affect the processing effect.

7. Use spindle motor according to specifications. This is the best maintenance.

CNC router spindles

CNC router spindles

In addition to the above provisions, in the absence of training, strictly prohibit the induction operation, or when the main shaft failure, it is strictly prohibited to disassemble. To promptly contact the CNC router manufacturers for troubleshooting.

From this practical guide, you will understand what is a CNC router spindle? how does it work? how to choose a CNC router spindle motor? how to use and maintain CNC router spindles?

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