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Last Updated on May 17, 2022 by 7 Min Read

A Practical Guide for CNC Router Operators

A Practical Guide for CNC Router Operators

What Does A CNC Router Operator Need To Do?

CNC router operator need to produce machined parts by programming, setting up, and operating a computer numerical control (CNC) machine; maintaining quality and safety standards; keeping records; maintaining equipment and supplies.

CNC Router Operator & CNC Router Machinist Job Duties:

1. Plans machining by studying work orders, materials, specifications, drawings, reference planes, locations of surfaces, and machining parameters; interpreting geometric dimensions and tolerances (GD&T).

2. Plans stock inventory by checking stock to determine amount available; anticipating needed stock; placing and expediting orders for stock; verifying receipt of stock.

3. Programs using G-Code and M-Code by entering instructions, including zero and reference points; setting tool registers, offsets, compensation, and conditional switches; calculating requirements, including basic math, geometry, and trigonometry; proving part programs.

4. Sets-up by installing and adjusting three- and four-jaw chucks, tools, attachments, collets, bushings, cams, gears, stops, and stock pushers; indicating vices; trimming heads.

5. Maintains specifications by observing drilling, grooving, and cutting; taking measurements; detecting malfunctions; troubleshooting processes; adjusting and reprogramming controls; sharpening and replacing worn tools; adhering to quality assurance procedures and processes.

6. Maintains safe operations by adhering to safety procedures and regulations.

7. Maintains equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; following manufacturer's instructions; troubleshooting malfunctions; calling for repairs.

8. Maintains continuity among work shifts by documenting and communicating actions, irregularities, and continuing needs.

9. Documents actions by completing production and quality logs.

10. Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading technical publications.

11. Accomplishes organization goals by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments.

CNC Router Installation

1. Place the machine on a flat surface, and adjust and level the four corners of the CNC machine body. It is recommended to use a level to adjust the table to level.

2. Fix the suction pipe brackets to the sides of the Z-axis machine head and the bed bracket respectively. The fixing place has screws on it, after removing it, install the bracket on it.

3. Fill the water tank with water. The spindle cutting motor is cooled by water, so we fix a water tank on the chassis and add water from the water inlet.

4. Connect a total of four power cords at the rear of the chassis on the left side of the CNC router to the three-phase power, and one of the black wires must be connected to the neutral wire. Take out the control handle and the connecting line from the accessory box and connect it to the chassis, press the main switch, the handle screen will light up, prompting whether to return to the origin, press the "OK" key to return to the origin, the machine starts to move, the Z axis rises to the top, and the X axis returns The left Y axis returns to the front of the fuselage. Check whether the water pump is working properly. Method: Pull out the water outlet to see if there is water flowing out. After the water pump has been working for a long time, the water outlet pipe still cannot flow out, the water pump reverses, and the two wires input to the water pump are adjusted arbitrarily to make the water pump rotate forward.

5. The dust hood with brush is inserted from the bottom of the spindle cutting motor. The brush should be lower than the position of a router bit at the spindle clamp. Of course, this position is adjustable, mainly for good dust collection.

6. Install the vacuum tube. There are three vacuum tubes, two of which are the same length and thin, and one section is thick and long. The long other end needs to be connected to the top of the vacuum cleaner. Among them, there are three suction ports for the vacuum cleaner, one of which is equipped with a sealing cover, and the other two ports are for the pipe head. If you only need one, you can seal the other port with tape.

Vacuum Pump Installation

1. Install the vacuum pump on a flat surface and fix it with bolts through the bolt holes on the bottom corners, no special foundation or chassis is required

2. Wrap the pipe joint of the filter with sealing tape a few times, and screw it on the motor body. The tightness of the connection between the two must be guaranteed.

3. Inject water from the water inlet until water flows out from the water outlet. After using for a period of time, the water volume will decrease and the water temperature will increase, so the operator needs to pay attention: always add water until the outlet overflows and the water temperature does not exceed 80 degrees Celsius. It is recommended to connect the tap water pipe to the water outlet, the water outlet or the two ports can circulate to ensure sufficient water. Note: Do not run the vacuum pump dry. The gas inlet and outlet directions and the rotation direction of the pump have been marked on the vacuum pump with arrows.

Three steps to install a vacuum cleaner

1. Please install according to the diagram outside the box.

2. Connect three-phase power, and the dust bag must be opened after starting, otherwise the motor will reverse. It can be solved by arbitrarily switching two of the lines.

3. Trial operation:

After the three devices are ready, take out the suction tube of the CNC router from the back of the bracket and insert it into the suction port of the vacuum pump, and tighten it with a checkpoint. The suction pipe is connected to the pipe joint of the vacuum cleaner. Turn on the machine switch, all equipment is in the on state, the six adsorption zone switches on the front side of the machine will not be dragged off and the materials on the surface will be sucked firmly on the table; open the vacuum hood, reach out and feel that there are two pipes Suction; the handle makes the machine move back and forth, up, down, left and right after resetting. This proves that the machine can operate normally.

The maintenance and maintenance of the machine is also indispensable when using it after purchasing the machine. Only by learning to maintain the machine’s service life can it bring us more benefits. When the machine fails, it is time-consuming and laborious, and it also delays production. Now we will introduce how to maintain the machine correctly during use.

CNC Router Maintenance

As a kind of automatic machine tool, CNC router machine has a certain running-in period. In the first three months of use, pay attention to slow engraving, intermittent work and be careful not to overheat the drive motor for a long time, and often clean the guide screw bearings. Impurities and dust on the oil, maintenance.

Maintenance Guidelines

Because the CNC router should be cleaned up and lubricated frequently during normal use, otherwise the CNC router will have a lot of dust and impurities inside the lead screw, guide rail, slider, and bearing under long-term operation, causing the lead screw, slider, and bearing to rotate If the resistance is large, there will be the phenomenon of losing steps and dislocation when the engraving speed is faster.

Maintenance Method

1. Choose lubricating substance: A mixture of engine oil and butter, not too thick.

2. Lubrication part: Three-axis track slider gear rack screw bearing.

3. Lubrication steps: Before lubricating, remove the impurities in the rack, pinion, lead screw, guide rail, nut and bearing slider. If they cannot be removed, they can be cleaned with gasoline, then filled with lubricating oil and then gradually increased Idle travel at speed, that is, no plate, three-axis running-in

4. The lubrication cycle depends on the working environment and the working hours of the machine. Generally, the debris is cleaned up after get off work every day. Lubricate all parts every month, and lubricate at high speed.

5. Lubrication method Use a grease gun to inject lubricating oil into the slider. Use an oil can to drip the oil or wipe the oil with a cloth.

Vacuum Pump Maintenance

1. In order to avoid impeller, pump body wear or impeller jam, dust particles entering the cavity with gas and working liquid should be washed away through the flushing port at the bottom of the pump cover.

2. If hard water is used as the working fluid, the hard water must be softened, or the vacuum pump must be flushed with solvent regularly.

3. Lubrication. Under normal working conditions, when using a 50Hz motor: After 20,000 hours or three years of operation, the waste grease and stolen goods in the bearing and accessory spaces should be removed and filled with new grease. The injected grease should account for 50% of the free space of the bearing and 65% of the space of the bearing cover.

If the working conditions are very bad, the grease replacement cycle will be shortened accordingly.

4. When exhausting, open the water outlet of the water tank to allow the liquid to flow out. And turn the vacuum pump by turning the fan by hand until no liquid flows out.

Tilt the pump 45 degrees, which can basically empty the vacuum pump. In this way, even if the vacuum pump is not used for a long time or in a cold climate, the pump will not be damaged.

5. How to deal with the long-term pump stop

If the vacuum pump stops running for about 4 weeks, the anti-corrosion treatment should be carried out after the pump is completely emptied according to item 3, that is, 12 liters of anti-corrosion oil is poured into the vacuum pump from the suction or exhaust port, and then operated for a short time.

If the impeller is stuck after the pump is stopped for a long time due to the use of hard water, the pump cavity should be filled with 10% oxalic acid for about 30 minutes.

Vacuum Cleaner Maintenance

Clean the dust frequently, pay attention to the rotation position and refuel for maintenance.

CNC Router Tools

Whether it is cutting or carving, it is inseparable from the tool. The correct use and storage of the tool will greatly increase its service life.

1. Be sure to choose the appropriate size of the jacket, those with cross-section, not round enough, and the inner hole with a tapered jacket can not provide enough clamping force, the jacket must be replaced immediately, otherwise it will cause the tool handle vibration , Flying off or twisting off cause danger.

2. The grip of the tool shank should be in good contact. The tool shank must be fully inserted into the jacket and tightened firmly. When the tool shank is clamped and found to have uneven contact marks or grooves, it indicates that there is slippage and If the inner hole of the jacket is deformed, the jacket must be replaced immediately.

3. When the tool is blunt, please do not continue to use it. If you continue to process it, the cutting torque of the tool body will increase, which will exceed the capacity of the tool body, causing the tool to break and even cause industrial accidents.

4. The flatness and curvature of the processed workpiece are too large, which will affect the service life of the tool, especially when the cutting depth is greater than the cutting thickness of the cutting edge, high temperature will be generated when the non-cutting part contacts the workpiece, and the tool will deform and cause the tool Bending or breaking, and even industrial accidents.

5. Please use proper glasses guarantee device during operation.

6. Keep your body, clothes, hair and sundries away from objects at work.

7. Selection of cutting amount

For cutting different materials, the cutting speed is very important to the service life of the tool and the processing quality of the workpiece. A reasonable amount of cutting will make the cutting lighter, better and safer.

Larger tools should choose low-speed cutting and advance slowly, the advance speed is uniform and stable, and the advance should be continuous. Remember: there can be no stop during the cutting process.

If you use a larger diameter tool, you can complete the cutting after several advancements, which can increase the service life of the tool and make the operation safer.

8. Tool retention

Keep the router bits clean and use solvents for standard tools to remove dirt, grease and other impurities.

Appropriate amount of mechanical oil can prevent rust and damage to the tool surface.

Do not overwrite the tool and change the shape of the tool without authorization, because every grinding process requires special mechanical equipment and special grinding skills to meet the requirements of use, otherwise it will easily cause the cutting edge to break and cause industrial accident.

The bearings cannot be cleaned with solvents such as diesel or kerosene, otherwise the special grease inside will be destroyed and dust and dirt can be blown out.

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