CNC technology not only brings revolutionary changes to traditional manufacturing, making manufacturing a symbol of industrialization, but with the continuous development of CNC machining technology and the expansion of application fields, it has played an important role in the development of some important industries of national economy and people's livelihood. The more important role. Although there has been a trend of high precision and high speed more than ten years ago, the development of science and technology is endless. The meaning of high precision and high speed is constantly changing, and it is developing towards the limits of precision and speed.
From the perspective of the development trend of CNC machining technology in the world, there are mainly the following aspects:
1. The development of high-speed, precise, intelligent and miniaturized machine tools.
With the wide application of industrial light alloy materials such as automobiles and aerospace, high-speed machining has become an important development trend of manufacturing technology. High-speed machining has the advantages of shortening machining time, improving machining accuracy and surface quality, and is increasingly used in mold manufacturing and other fields. The high speed of the machine tool requires a new numerical control system, high speed electric spindle and high speed servo feed drive, as well as the optimization and weight reduction of the machine tool structure. High-speed machining is not only the equipment itself, but also the integration of machine tools, tools, tool holders, fixtures and CNC programming technology, as well as personnel quality. The ultimate goal of high speed is to increase efficiency. The machine tool is only one of the keys to achieve high efficiency. It is by no means all. Production efficiency and benefits are on the "knife tip".
2. The rapid development of five-axis linkage machining and compound machining machine tools.
The five-axis linkage is used to process the three-dimensional curved surface parts, and the best geometry of the tool can be used for cutting, which not only has a high finish, but also greatly improves the efficiency. It is generally believed that the efficiency of a five-axis linkage machine tool can be equal to two three-axis linkage machine tools, especially when high-speed milling of hardened steel parts using cubic boron nitride and other super-hard material cutters, five-axis linkage machining is comparable to three-axis linkage Processing is more effective. However, in the past, due to the complicated structure of the host machine of the five-axis linkage CNC system, its price was several times higher than that of the three-axis linkage CNC machine tool, and the programming technology was more difficult, which restricted the development of the five-axis linkage machine tool. The current development of CNC machining technology has greatly simplified the structure of composite spindle heads for five-axis simultaneous machining, greatly reduced the difficulty and cost of manufacturing, and reduced the price gap of CNC systems. Therefore, the five-axis linkage technology has promoted the development of compound spindle head type five-axis linkage machine tools and compound processing machine tools.
3. The development of new structures, new materials and new design methods.
The high-speed and precision of machine tools require the structure of machine tools to be simplified and lightened, in order to reduce the negative impact of the inertia of machine tool components on machining accuracy, and greatly improve the dynamic performance of machine tools. For example, the topological optimization of machine tool components with the help of finite element analysis, the design of box-in-box structures, the use of hollow welded structures, and the use of lead alloy materials have begun to move from the laboratory to practical use.
CNC machine tool design and development should transition from 2D CAD to 3D CAD as soon as possible. Three-dimensional modeling and simulation are the foundation of modern design and the source of enterprise's technological superiority. Based on this three-dimensional design, CAD / CAM / CAE / PDM integration is carried out to speed up the development of new products, ensure the smooth commissioning of new products, and gradually realize product lifecycle management.
4. The development of open CNC systems.
Many countries have conducted research on open CNC systems, and the opening of CNC systems has become the future of CNC systems. The so-called open CNC system is that the development of the CNC system can be oriented to machine tool manufacturers and end users on a unified operating platform, by changing, adding or cutting structural objects (CNC function), to form a series, and can easily Special applications and technical know-how are integrated into the control system to quickly realize open CNC systems of different varieties and grades, forming famous brand products with distinctive personalities. There are three forms of open CNC systems:
A. Fully open system, that is, a microcomputer-based numerical control system, using a microcomputer as a platform, using a real-time operating system, developing various functions of the numerical control system, transmitting data through a servo card, and controlling the movement of a coordinate axis motor.
B. Embedded system, namely CNC + PC, CNC controls the movement of the coordinate axis motor, PC as a man-machine interface and network communication.
C. Fusion system, add PC motherboard on the basis of CNC, provide keyboard operation, improve the man-machine interface function.
The architecture specification, communication specification, configuration specification, operating platform, CNC system function library and CNC system function software development tools of the open CNC system are the core of the current research.
5. Development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems.
As the speed of product upgrades accelerates, the reconfigurability of special machine tools and the reorganizability of manufacturing systems are increasingly important. Through the modularization of CNC machining units and functional components, the manufacturing system can be quickly reorganized and configured to meet the production needs of modified products. The interface standardization and standardization of mechanical, electrical and electronic, liquid and gas, and control software is the key to achieve reorganization.
6. Development of virtual machine tools and virtual manufacturing.
In order to speed up the development speed and quality of new machine tools, with the help of virtual reality technology in the design stage, you can evaluate the correctness and performance of machine tool design before the machine tool is manufactured, and find various errors in the design process at an early stage to reduce Loss, improve the quality of new machine tool development.